Connection between water vapor and plasma

Connection between water vapor and plasma. And, it can’t be debunked as it’s already been done, in a cloud chamber of course, because this is all just a conspiracy  theory anyways, right?

This link is excellent, it goes into the cloud microphysics behind this technology. I’ve posted similar links to facebook, but not near as in-depth. Grab some tea or coffee, and maybe some crackers, here we go. 

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

“Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions”

“A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere.”

“High-power lasers allow producing plasma channels in the atmosphere by nonlinear optical effects leading to filamentation. Light filaments (10⇓⇓⇓–14) constitute a nonlinear, self-guided propagation mode of ultrashort laser pulses above a critical power of 3–6 GW in air for 800-nm radiation. They carry a typical intensity as high as 5 × 1013 W/cm2, allowing to ionize and photooxidize (15) the air at kilometer-range distances (16), leaving a plasma trail behind them. Their ability to propagate unperturbed in adverse conditions like turbulence (17) or clouds (18) designs them for atmospheric applications”

“Our results do strongly depend on the temperature of the cloud under investigation. At temperatures above the limit of homogeneous freezing, the filaments did not modify the activation of preexisting aerosol particles to liquid cloud droplets, which, within our limits of experimental uncertainty, always occurred at water saturation. Aerosol particles generated photochemically by the laser plasma before the expansion (21) were equally active as cloud condensation nuclei. Upon further cooling, cloud droplets that had nucleated on these aerosols froze homogeneously as soon as the relative humidity reached the Koop limit for homogeneous freezing (22), indicating they are at least partially soluble and that any insoluble part, if present, is not active as a heterogeneous ice nucleus.”

“Laser filament–cloud interaction experiments have been performed over a range of tropospheric conditions with temperatures between 10 °C and −60 °C, and pressures from 0.6 to 1 bar. Clouds were created by adiabatic expansion in atmospheres consisting of synthetic air with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) either produced photochemically by the laser filament action (21) or introduced before the expansion as well-defined mineral dust and sulfuric acid particles”

Mineral dust, hmmm, metallic “smart dust” particles can suffice just as well.

“The situation changes profoundly when the laser filaments interact with ice clouds at temperatures below the limit of homogeneous freezing and at supersaturation with respect to ice. Under these conditions, we observe the laser-induced production of a large number of additional ice particles. The laser filaments continue to produce ice particles until the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) is brought back to values very close to unity. The effect is illustrated in Fig. 1, where cirrus cloud-type expansions with and without laser filament action are compared. Without laser action, ice forms by deposition mode nucleation on mineral dust particles as soon as RHi reaches 1.1 (visible by a few optical detector counts in Fig. 1D). These initial ice particles are formed at a concentration of less than 1 cm−3 and grow to sizes up to a diameter of 50 µm, thereby hardly depleting the ice supersaturation”

“For the following discussion we will refer to this surprising effect of the laser filaments as “filament-induced secondary ice multiplication” (FISIM). This term is justified further by a more detailed analysis of the ice formation kinetics below.

A total of 39 similar experiments with natural and artificial heterogeneous ice nuclei or with homogeneously frozen ice particles present has been conducted over a broad range of temperature and relative humidity.”

“The fast growth of the ice particle number density implies that each laser–ice particle interaction produces an extremely large number of secondary ice particles with a size limited to the nanometer range by water mass conservation. Their subsequent optical detection indicates that they can grow into the μm size range while being distributed through the ice–supersaturated AIDA atmosphere. Eventually, they are transported back into the filament region where they can contribute anew to the ice multiplication process. The secondary ice particles could be created either by laser-induced mechanical shattering of the preexisting ice particles or by thermal evaporation of the ice particles and a subsequent condensation of the water vapor to form a large number of small droplets. However, shattering and subsequent growth of the fragments should be effective at temperatures above the threshold of homogeneous freezing as well. We therefore conclude that we observe the condensation and subsequent freezing of liquid water, i.e., condensation freezing. The latter requires both water supersaturation and a temperature below the limit of homogeneous freezing and leads to the following mechanism for FISIM: The laser filaments deposit a considerable amount of electronic excitation energy in the preexisting ice particles by nonlinear interactions. This amount of energy is sufficient to completely evaporate the ice particles, even if they are hit only partially. On a millisecond timescale, the resulting water vapor plume expands and cools down by molecular or turbulent diffusional mixing with the surrounding cold gas. Due to the strongly nonlinear dependence of water vapor pressure on temperature, this leads to a zone of supersaturation similar to the situation in a diffusion condensation chamber.”

“Throughout this zone, water vapor will condense either on preexisting aerosol particles or on the ions remaining from the laser plasma at a relative humidity above the threshold for ion induced nucleation of RHw = 4 (24, 25), or homogeneously around RHw = 15 (26). A simple diffusion–mixing calculation shows that very high supersaturation with respect to water can be reached in a large volume around the interaction region (e.g., RHw > 4 in a volume of 1 cm3 and RHw > 15 in a volume of 0.5 cm3 for an initial spherical ice crystal of 80-µm diameter) (Methods). The -nucleated nanodroplets- may freeze and survive as tiny ice crystals provided the temperature lies below −37 °C. These ice crystals are then rapidly dispersed throughout the chamber by the mixing fan and grow subsequently into the micrometer-size regime if the chamber supersaturation with respect to ice is above unity.”

Hmmm, chembomb?

“The laser created a large amount of secondary ice particles that quickly exceeded the number concentration of initial ice particles by a factor of 100 in a volume nine orders of magnitude larger than the filament volume itself. Under conditions representative for ice-supersaturated regions in the upper troposphere, each individual laser pulse produced several millions of new ice particles that grew to sizes of a few tens of micrometers in diameter and are thus easily detected optically.”

“Clouds were created by adiabatic expansion in atmospheres consisting of synthetic air [99.998% purity, low hydrocarbon grade (Basi)]. CCN were either produced photochemically by the laser filament action or introduced before the expansion as well-defined mineral dust and sulfuric acid particles. A typical expansion rate was 8 mbar/min corresponding to an atmospheric updraft velocity of about 1 m/s. The chamber atmosphere was homogenized by a powerful mixing fan placed below the filaments throughout the experiments. The gas velocity at the mixing fan reached ∼2 m/s, and the volume flow is about 200 L/s. Aerosol particles in the chamber were sampled through stainless-steel tubes placed ∼15 cm above the laser filaments. Their number concentration was measured with condensation particle counters (CPCs) (3010, 3775, 3776; TSI) for particles larger than about 10, 4, and 2.5 nm, respectively, with a time resolution of 1 s. Aerosol particle size distributions (14–820 nm) were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (DMA 3071 and CPC 3010; TSI) with a time resolution of 300 s. CCN particles and cloud hydrometeors were characterized by optical scattering measurements at 488 nm, both in the forward (2°) and backward (178°) directions, including a depolarization channel bearing information about the asphericity of the particles, distinguishing between liquid droplets and ice.”

“Assuming a complete evaporation of any ice particle hit by the laser filaments, the maximum extend of the volume **supersaturated with respect to ion-induced water nucleation (RHw = 4)** is calculated for each evaporated ice particle”

“water vapor mass exceeding saturation is then distributed evenly among all nuclei in the supersaturated volume, which are assumed to be present at a constant number density ρcn. The resulting monodisperse ice particles (typical diameter, 10 nm) are assumed to be dispersed throughout the AIDA chamber by the action of the mixing fan and their diffusional growth in the time period up to the next laser pulse is calculated, resulting in a decrease of the relative humidity within the chamber. This procedure is repeated for every individual laser pulse, creating new secondary ice particles at the repetition rate of the laser. For each set of ice particles created from each laser pulse, the number and mass density is recorded and their subsequent growth is treated separately. Due to the growth of the earlier ice particles, ice particles produced at later times are created in a less humid cloud chamber and reach smaller sizes. This explains the experimentally observed broad size distribution of the secondary ice particles. In the model, all secondary ice particles are allowed to interact again with the laser and to produce higher generations of ice particles; this process proves to be effective only after the ice particles have grown to considerable size, however.”

“Although the laser had virtually no effect in interacting with liquid phase clouds and mixed-phase clouds above the temperature of homogeneous freezing, it profoundly modified the microphysics and optical properties of cirrus clouds under the conditions of ice supersaturation.”

“This effect could be exploited to measure remotely the ice supersaturation in the upper troposphere, a quantity that is very difficult to assess otherwise and has given rise to some scientific controversy due to its importance for the radiative budget of the earth (28). The large ice multiplication factor described here might open the possibility for laser modification of natural cirrus clouds or the artificial seeding of cirrus clouds in ice-supersaturated regions.
—————————

“the number concentration of cloud nuclei ρcn that are available for the condensation of water around the plasma-evaporated ice crystals”


Again…
plasma-evaporated ice crystals.

Some of you may remember me saying this shite a long time ago on facebook.

“*The main effect would be to create cirrus clouds that contain more but smaller ice particles, which might resemble laser written contrails.*”

The plasma-channel is HAARP proof-of-concept technology. They both create the same type of plasma to produce plasma-evaporated ice crystals encapsulating MEMS/NEMS devices that can directed in the atmosphere via radio frequencies.

http://www.pnas.org/content/110/25/10106.full

Youtube video of a femtosecond laser producing plasma in the air. (plasma-channel beam)

Note the picture for this article, it’s no UFO.

“The main effect would be to create cirrus clouds that contain more but smaller ice particles, which might resemble laser written contrails.”

With this system mounted on a non-geostationary satellite (Earth rotates, satellite position remains the same), as this satellite is beaming the atmosphere, the effect would look like a contrail of an aircraft.

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