Levitated particles in a Radio Frequency generated dusty plasma

It’s SCIENTIFIC FACT that crystals can be grown in a radio frequency propagated dusty plasma. These crystals can indeed act as cloud condensation nuclei and/or ice nuclei. Dusty plasmas are a pertinent field of research in the semiconductor business. The main connection here not being so much dusty plasma itself, but the dust particles. Dust particles are a necessary component of what? CLOUDS.

“Scientists in the semiconductor industry, rather than astrophysicists, stumbled onto a significant discovery as they searched for the source of particulate contamination of semiconductor wafers. It had been widely believed that particle contamination of silicon substrates occurred mainly during handling of wafers in air. So attention was focused on improving clean−room standards. Nobody thought to check whether the contamination might be happening inside the plasma processing reactors that are used to deposit and etch thin films on the wafers”
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“Gary Selwyn of IBM made a serendipitous discovery. He was carrying out a routine measurement with laser−induced fluorescence, to determine the concentrations of reactive gases in a plasma.4 When Selwyn shined his laser into the plasma, his attempted measurement of weak optical fluorescence was overwhelmed by scattering of the incident light. The laser light was illuminating clouds of micron−sized particles electrically suspended in the plasma above the wafer (see figure 2).

Selwyn found that particles actually formed and grew in the gas phase (see box 1), aggregating material from gases that were thought to have been exhausted by the vacuum pump. Then, at the fateful moment when the plasma−generating RF power was switched off, the particles fell and contaminated the wafer. Selwyn’s discovery revealed that much of the particle contamination responsible for costly yield losses was happening not just anywhere in the clean rooms, but inside the plasma reactors.

Whereas a dusty plasma is something of enduring interest to an astronomer, it was a vexing problem to be avoided by the semiconductor manufacturer. Nevertheless, the two communities suddenly found common ground. Both needed to understand the charging mechanisms and the forces that transport particles from one place to another in a plasma. But not all the progress was visible; secretiveness is often the rule in the semiconductor industry. Successful solutions are often hidden away as proprietary secrets.

Some solutions are known to involve plasma−chamber designs that exploit various forces on particles to divert them toward the vacuum pump. There have also been changes in the method of coupling RF energy to the plasma. Rather than relying solely on capacitive coupling, manufacturers now commonly also use inductive coupling to power a plasma−processing reactor. As a result, the electric fields are too weak to levitate particles large enough to cause killer defects on etched wafers.

The discovery by the semiconductor industry that RF−powered plasmas can levitate dust particles turned out to be a boon for basic plasma physicists, who study such things as waves and instabilities in ionized gases. Plasma physicists had heard astronomers talk of dusty plasmas in space, and they were eager to study them. The laboratory experimenter, however, has the difficulty that dust particles, unlike plasma ions and electrons, are so massive that they fall rapidly to the bottom of the chamber. Experimenters needed a way to fill a volume of plasma with particles, but gravity seemed sure to thwart them.

Then came Selwyn’s unexpected discovery. Immediately after the appearance of his 1989 paper, plasma experimenters worldwide realized how they could levitate particles in an RF−generated plasma. Soon, other laboratory methods of filling a plasma volume were developed as well….

One can, for example, maintain a dusty plasma by constantly showering particles in from above.”
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Figure 2. “Rings of dust particles encircling silicon wafers in a plasma processing device. In an accidental 1989 discovery, laser light was shone into a plasma used to etch Si wafers so that the expected weak optical fluorescence would monitor concentrations of reactive gas. Instead, the fluorescence was overwhelmed by scattering of the incident light off unanticipated clouds of micron−sized particles electrically suspended in the plasma above the wafers. Although great pains had been taken to minimize dust contamination of the clean room, it was discovered that the particles actually formed and grew in the plasma. When the RF power that generates the plasma is turned off, the particles fall onto the wafer, contaminating it. (Inset) An electron−microscope image of a 20−μm−diameter particle from such a dust cloud.”

“RF−powered plasmas can levitate dust particles”

“maintain a dusty plasma by constantly showering particles in”

“the particles actually formed and grew in the plasma”

Now…

“When the RF power that generates the plasma is turned off, the particles fall onto the wafer, contaminating it.”

People and the planet are the “wafer”. I wonder what kind of health effects this has generated?

http://dusty.physics.uiowa.edu/~goree/papers/PhysicsTodayJuly2004.html#cap2
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Connection between water vapor and plasma

Connection between water vapor and plasma. And, it can’t be debunked as it’s already been done, in a cloud chamber of course, because this is all just a conspiracy  theory anyways, right?

This link is excellent, it goes into the cloud microphysics behind this technology. I’ve posted similar links to facebook, but not near as in-depth. Grab some tea or coffee, and maybe some crackers, here we go. 

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

“Laser-induced plasma cloud interaction and ice multiplication under cirrus cloud conditions”

“A model relying on the complete vaporization of ice particles in the laser filament and the condensation of the resulting water vapor on plasma ions reproduces our experimental findings. This surprising effect might open new perspectives for remote sensing of water vapor and ice in the upper troposphere.”

“High-power lasers allow producing plasma channels in the atmosphere by nonlinear optical effects leading to filamentation. Light filaments (10⇓⇓⇓–14) constitute a nonlinear, self-guided propagation mode of ultrashort laser pulses above a critical power of 3–6 GW in air for 800-nm radiation. They carry a typical intensity as high as 5 × 1013 W/cm2, allowing to ionize and photooxidize (15) the air at kilometer-range distances (16), leaving a plasma trail behind them. Their ability to propagate unperturbed in adverse conditions like turbulence (17) or clouds (18) designs them for atmospheric applications”

“Our results do strongly depend on the temperature of the cloud under investigation. At temperatures above the limit of homogeneous freezing, the filaments did not modify the activation of preexisting aerosol particles to liquid cloud droplets, which, within our limits of experimental uncertainty, always occurred at water saturation. Aerosol particles generated photochemically by the laser plasma before the expansion (21) were equally active as cloud condensation nuclei. Upon further cooling, cloud droplets that had nucleated on these aerosols froze homogeneously as soon as the relative humidity reached the Koop limit for homogeneous freezing (22), indicating they are at least partially soluble and that any insoluble part, if present, is not active as a heterogeneous ice nucleus.”

“Laser filament–cloud interaction experiments have been performed over a range of tropospheric conditions with temperatures between 10 °C and −60 °C, and pressures from 0.6 to 1 bar. Clouds were created by adiabatic expansion in atmospheres consisting of synthetic air with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) either produced photochemically by the laser filament action (21) or introduced before the expansion as well-defined mineral dust and sulfuric acid particles”

Mineral dust, hmmm, metallic “smart dust” particles can suffice just as well.

“The situation changes profoundly when the laser filaments interact with ice clouds at temperatures below the limit of homogeneous freezing and at supersaturation with respect to ice. Under these conditions, we observe the laser-induced production of a large number of additional ice particles. The laser filaments continue to produce ice particles until the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) is brought back to values very close to unity. The effect is illustrated in Fig. 1, where cirrus cloud-type expansions with and without laser filament action are compared. Without laser action, ice forms by deposition mode nucleation on mineral dust particles as soon as RHi reaches 1.1 (visible by a few optical detector counts in Fig. 1D). These initial ice particles are formed at a concentration of less than 1 cm−3 and grow to sizes up to a diameter of 50 µm, thereby hardly depleting the ice supersaturation”

“For the following discussion we will refer to this surprising effect of the laser filaments as “filament-induced secondary ice multiplication” (FISIM). This term is justified further by a more detailed analysis of the ice formation kinetics below.

A total of 39 similar experiments with natural and artificial heterogeneous ice nuclei or with homogeneously frozen ice particles present has been conducted over a broad range of temperature and relative humidity.”

“The fast growth of the ice particle number density implies that each laser–ice particle interaction produces an extremely large number of secondary ice particles with a size limited to the nanometer range by water mass conservation. Their subsequent optical detection indicates that they can grow into the μm size range while being distributed through the ice–supersaturated AIDA atmosphere. Eventually, they are transported back into the filament region where they can contribute anew to the ice multiplication process. The secondary ice particles could be created either by laser-induced mechanical shattering of the preexisting ice particles or by thermal evaporation of the ice particles and a subsequent condensation of the water vapor to form a large number of small droplets. However, shattering and subsequent growth of the fragments should be effective at temperatures above the threshold of homogeneous freezing as well. We therefore conclude that we observe the condensation and subsequent freezing of liquid water, i.e., condensation freezing. The latter requires both water supersaturation and a temperature below the limit of homogeneous freezing and leads to the following mechanism for FISIM: The laser filaments deposit a considerable amount of electronic excitation energy in the preexisting ice particles by nonlinear interactions. This amount of energy is sufficient to completely evaporate the ice particles, even if they are hit only partially. On a millisecond timescale, the resulting water vapor plume expands and cools down by molecular or turbulent diffusional mixing with the surrounding cold gas. Due to the strongly nonlinear dependence of water vapor pressure on temperature, this leads to a zone of supersaturation similar to the situation in a diffusion condensation chamber.”

“Throughout this zone, water vapor will condense either on preexisting aerosol particles or on the ions remaining from the laser plasma at a relative humidity above the threshold for ion induced nucleation of RHw = 4 (24, 25), or homogeneously around RHw = 15 (26). A simple diffusion–mixing calculation shows that very high supersaturation with respect to water can be reached in a large volume around the interaction region (e.g., RHw > 4 in a volume of 1 cm3 and RHw > 15 in a volume of 0.5 cm3 for an initial spherical ice crystal of 80-µm diameter) (Methods). The -nucleated nanodroplets- may freeze and survive as tiny ice crystals provided the temperature lies below −37 °C. These ice crystals are then rapidly dispersed throughout the chamber by the mixing fan and grow subsequently into the micrometer-size regime if the chamber supersaturation with respect to ice is above unity.”

Hmmm, chembomb?

“The laser created a large amount of secondary ice particles that quickly exceeded the number concentration of initial ice particles by a factor of 100 in a volume nine orders of magnitude larger than the filament volume itself. Under conditions representative for ice-supersaturated regions in the upper troposphere, each individual laser pulse produced several millions of new ice particles that grew to sizes of a few tens of micrometers in diameter and are thus easily detected optically.”

“Clouds were created by adiabatic expansion in atmospheres consisting of synthetic air [99.998% purity, low hydrocarbon grade (Basi)]. CCN were either produced photochemically by the laser filament action or introduced before the expansion as well-defined mineral dust and sulfuric acid particles. A typical expansion rate was 8 mbar/min corresponding to an atmospheric updraft velocity of about 1 m/s. The chamber atmosphere was homogenized by a powerful mixing fan placed below the filaments throughout the experiments. The gas velocity at the mixing fan reached ∼2 m/s, and the volume flow is about 200 L/s. Aerosol particles in the chamber were sampled through stainless-steel tubes placed ∼15 cm above the laser filaments. Their number concentration was measured with condensation particle counters (CPCs) (3010, 3775, 3776; TSI) for particles larger than about 10, 4, and 2.5 nm, respectively, with a time resolution of 1 s. Aerosol particle size distributions (14–820 nm) were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (DMA 3071 and CPC 3010; TSI) with a time resolution of 300 s. CCN particles and cloud hydrometeors were characterized by optical scattering measurements at 488 nm, both in the forward (2°) and backward (178°) directions, including a depolarization channel bearing information about the asphericity of the particles, distinguishing between liquid droplets and ice.”

“Assuming a complete evaporation of any ice particle hit by the laser filaments, the maximum extend of the volume **supersaturated with respect to ion-induced water nucleation (RHw = 4)** is calculated for each evaporated ice particle”

“water vapor mass exceeding saturation is then distributed evenly among all nuclei in the supersaturated volume, which are assumed to be present at a constant number density ρcn. The resulting monodisperse ice particles (typical diameter, 10 nm) are assumed to be dispersed throughout the AIDA chamber by the action of the mixing fan and their diffusional growth in the time period up to the next laser pulse is calculated, resulting in a decrease of the relative humidity within the chamber. This procedure is repeated for every individual laser pulse, creating new secondary ice particles at the repetition rate of the laser. For each set of ice particles created from each laser pulse, the number and mass density is recorded and their subsequent growth is treated separately. Due to the growth of the earlier ice particles, ice particles produced at later times are created in a less humid cloud chamber and reach smaller sizes. This explains the experimentally observed broad size distribution of the secondary ice particles. In the model, all secondary ice particles are allowed to interact again with the laser and to produce higher generations of ice particles; this process proves to be effective only after the ice particles have grown to considerable size, however.”

“Although the laser had virtually no effect in interacting with liquid phase clouds and mixed-phase clouds above the temperature of homogeneous freezing, it profoundly modified the microphysics and optical properties of cirrus clouds under the conditions of ice supersaturation.”

“This effect could be exploited to measure remotely the ice supersaturation in the upper troposphere, a quantity that is very difficult to assess otherwise and has given rise to some scientific controversy due to its importance for the radiative budget of the earth (28). The large ice multiplication factor described here might open the possibility for laser modification of natural cirrus clouds or the artificial seeding of cirrus clouds in ice-supersaturated regions.
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“the number concentration of cloud nuclei ρcn that are available for the condensation of water around the plasma-evaporated ice crystals”


Again…
plasma-evaporated ice crystals.

Some of you may remember me saying this shite a long time ago on facebook.

“*The main effect would be to create cirrus clouds that contain more but smaller ice particles, which might resemble laser written contrails.*”

The plasma-channel is HAARP proof-of-concept technology. They both create the same type of plasma to produce plasma-evaporated ice crystals encapsulating MEMS/NEMS devices that can directed in the atmosphere via radio frequencies.

http://www.pnas.org/content/110/25/10106.full

Youtube video of a femtosecond laser producing plasma in the air. (plasma-channel beam)

Note the picture for this article, it’s no UFO.

“The main effect would be to create cirrus clouds that contain more but smaller ice particles, which might resemble laser written contrails.”

With this system mounted on a non-geostationary satellite (Earth rotates, satellite position remains the same), as this satellite is beaming the atmosphere, the effect would look like a contrail of an aircraft.

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Introduction to Federal Nanoscience: Smoke and Mirrors

Hello concerned reader.

This topic is an introduction to the United States National Nanotechnology Initiative, while also raising questions about Nanotechnology’s history.

To start with, let us have a look at the NNI’s goals that it wishes to achieve.

NNI Vision, Goals, and Objectives

“The vision of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a future in which the ability to understand and control matter at the nanoscale leads to a revolution in technology and industry that benefits society.

The NNI expedites the discovery, development, and deployment of nanoscale science, engineering, and technology to serve the public good through a program of coordinated research and development aligned with the missions of the participating agencies. In order to realize the NNI vision, the NNI agencies are working collectively toward four primary goals; please note that each of the following goals is linked to a page detailing each goal’s objectives:

  1. Advance a world-class nanotechnology research and development program;
  2. Foster the transfer of new technologies into products for commercial and public benefit;
  3. Develop and sustain educational resources, a skilled workforce, and a dynamic infrastructure and toolset to advance nanotechnology; and
  4. Support responsible development of nanotechnology.

    “The list of Federal partners is quite extensive, ranging from NASA, the DoD, to the Agricultural Research Service.Most of us familiar with researching Nanotechnology know the basic gist, manipulating and controlling atoms and molecules.  However, Nanotechnology itself is a misnomer. It originally got its start as Ultra-precision Machining. Here is an excerpt from the NNI:

    in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology

    Materials that are designed in the nano scale by ultraprecision machining, henceforth, Nanotechnology.  Where the misnomer truly fits in (and my questions start to arise), is when these meta materials are no longer made in the nanoscale, but smaller, like Pico scale or Femto scale. Electron microscopes allow one to see in the nanoscale, as well as beyond the nanometer.

    Here is another excerpt from the NNI about seeing in the nanoscale:

    Beginning as early at the 1930s, scientists were able to see at the nanoscale using instruments such as the scanning electron microscope, the transmission electron microscope, and the field ion microscope.

    Upon reading that, just how much has been produced using Nanoscience since the Thirties? Possibilities could be ranging from synthetic fibers to the powders used in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Another interesting excerpt:

    It wasn’t until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could “see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

    See the discrepancy? Scientists were able to see in the nano scale in the 1930’s, but not until 1981.

    Let’s take another look at the name “Nanotechnology” and its definition, the manipulation and control of atoms.  The size of atoms and most molecules are not nano sized, but Angstrom sized (10−10 m), smaller than nanoscale (10-9 m).

    What was just said? Atoms. When was the Atom Bomb invented, in 1933 with the first successful test in 1945. What is the size of an atom again? Angstrom. In order for the scientists to see the atoms (isotopes) they were working on, they would need the very same microscopes used to see in the nanoscale and smaller.

    This shroud has extended into “modern Nanotechnology”. The FDA, EPA, and CDC claim not to have the mechanisms to detect nanomaterials in the environment. But what are the mechanisms mentioned? High powered microscopes. They will state in published research that nanomaterial ill-effects are not well understood, but then proceed to describe in full detail, the effects of engineered nanomaterials on biological systems.

    Now we do a 360 back to the goals of the NNI. From foods, beverages, to cosmetic products. Because there are no regulations, commercial companies involved with Nanotechnology research and development are left to their own recognizance to report any negative effects of their designer nanomaterials.

    Monsanto and RAND Corporation once said that Agent Orange was harmless. Ask a Vietnam veteran that has come into contact with Agent Orange how they feel about that statement.

    http://www.nano.gov/

Unregulated Rogue Nanotechnologies

Hello, my name is Pete Ramon, I am a Nanotechnology activist living in Michigan, USA.

I first became interested in Nanotechnology soon after first seeing chemtrails in 2009, when going down a road and looking up and seeing the local sky being fully gridded out. I had never seen anything like it. I spent a great deal of my life looking down, being a skateboarder for over twenty years, as I was decent at it.  Looking up that day changed my life.

I had heard of HAARP a long time ago, but my interest had peaked after seeing the sky in it’s condition that day. I checked out these books from my local library and read “Angel’s Don’t Play This HAARP” first, then “The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla” right after. I got on facebook to see what kind of activism there was against HAARP, and was surprised at how many groups there was, ranging from HAARP technology to Chemtrails. I joined the group, “Occupy HAARP”, which is were my activism started.

Through my first year of activism, I kept coming across “Smart Dust” technologies (e.g. MEMS/NEMS sensors). Then the field just continued expanding into other fields of Nano Tech, such as carbon nanotubes, nanofibers and biological and metallic nanoparticles. Since about sometime in 2011′, I primarily research Nanotechnology and its derivatives there-in. This technology has no oversight. No real governance or regulations.

By definition, Nanotechnology is the manipulation and control atoms and molecules at the nano scale, and was first discussed by Richard Feynman in 1959. Nanotechnology, though, is a misnomer, its actual name started out as Ultra-precision Machining. It was coined “Nanotechnology” by a Japanese scientist in 1974 in a semiconductor conference, then later used by Nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler in his first paper in 1981. With this said, though, scientists have been able to see in the nano scale since the 1930’s. There is a shroud over Nanotechnology, as modern Nanotechnology wasn’t to have gotten its start until 1981 with the advent of the scanning tunneling microscope. But how else could scientists see in the nano scale in the Thirties without an STM? There are a number of high-powered microscopes that can see in the nano scale, in which the first prototype electron microscope was constructed in 1931, by German physicist Ernst Ruska and electrical engineer Max Knoll. Two years later in 1933, a stronger electron microscope is constructed by Ruska. We now advance more than 50 years into the science to the present, now called Nanoscience. Now including Nanobiotechnology, BioNanotechnology, or Nanobiology, the combination of biological research integrated with various fields of nanotechnology.

 In the past few years, I have discovered that FSC cigarettes contain EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate) nanoparticles. E-Cigarettes contain metallic nanoparticles. Then I started noticing more and more people complaining of intestinal problems, young people even.  It made me push into Nanotechnology being applied to food stuffs and beverages. It was a bit of a surprise to find out that the FDA approves the use of a photocatalytic Titanium Dioxide nanoparticle. This particle is known to degrade biological matter, as was once intended to be used on the Deep Water Horizon oil spill. Food grade Nano TiO2 has now been linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Nanotechnology also provides the means to meet Mother Nature on her on ground, at her own game. Charged organometallic nanoparticles have the ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei.

As this is just a scale of measurement, as the technology can get much, much smaller. Particulate matter is the name of the game.

The world of Nanotechnology is so vast, it’s a great opportunity to write here on Climate Viewer News about the very real dangers of Nanotechnology, and be able to go into detail in each field.

Thank you, Jim Lee.